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Main Athletics Modalities That Exist

Athletics is the oldest form of sport in the world, bringing together three modalities:

  • Races;
  • Jumps;
  • Pitch / Releases.

For a long time, the most important sport was pentathlon, which consisted of:

  • Dart and Disc Throwing;
  • Races;
  • Jumps;

Speed Run

Running is an integral part of athletics because it is the basis for long, triple, and high jumps in addition to having several events. The athletes who use the race need to train and play the best possible way. Running steps are cyclic ballistic movements, where the athlete touches the ground alternately with each foot, and when leaving the ground, the body is projected forward.

The pass has three phases:

  • Support Phase;
  • Propulsion Phase;
  • Flight or Recovery Phase.

The muscles involved in the steps are:

  • Gluteus Maximus;
  • hamstrings;
  • Quadriceps;
  • Sartorius;
  • Sural Triceps.

The muscles of the upper limbs activated during running are:

  • Anterior Deltoid;
  • Greater Pectoral;
  • Coracobrachialis;
  • Posterior Deltoid;
  • Great Back.

The athlete leans the torso forward during the start to make the ground reaction force and get out of the position that requires the starting block. For this incline, the muscles of the abdomen and lower back are essential.

The official athletics events in the adult category (male and female) are:

Shallow Runs: 100m, 200m, 400m, 800m, 1,500m, 5,000m and 10,000m

Running with Barriers: 110m and 400m

Obstacle Race: 3,000m

Athletic March: 20,000m and 50,000m

Relays: 4x100m and 4x400m

Long jump

The long jump consists of a horizontal jump, which is propelled by one of the legs in a predetermined area, and landing in a sandbox, placed at ground level, to reach the most significant possible distance. For an efficient jump, it is necessary: ​​a maximum (controlled) speed in the approach phase and a vertical speed in the impulsion phase

The athlete must control three factors:

Speed;

Jump Angle;

Height of Impulse.

In the group style, we have four phases:

approach phase

High-level athletes use 35 to 45 meters of distance for the race, which will use the following muscles:

Gluteus Maximus;

hamstrings;

Quadriceps;

Sartorius;

Sural Triceps.

The muscles of the upper limbs activated during running are:

Anterior Deltoid;

Greater Pectoral;

Coracobrachialis;

Posterior Deltoid;

Great Back.

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